This textbook is primarily intended for undergraduate students of metallurgical and materials science engineering, and postgraduate students of material science. It is the outcome of author’s thirty-five years’ teaching experience at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
In this book, whether it is crystal structure or the instruments, attempt has been made to build up from basics. Sufficient emphasis is given on the applications of each characterization technique. This book can be divided into two parts. The first part deals with understanding of structure and depiction of crystallographic planes and directions quantitatively, which is absolutely necessary for understanding of application of X-rays or electron microscopes. The second part deals with basic principles and applications of X-ray and electron diffraction, small angle and grazing incidence X-ray scattering and spectroscopic analysis methods. The chapter on electron microscopes includes almost whole range of instruments like TEM, SEM, FESEM, microprobe analyzer and AFM, used for characterizing micro and nanomaterials. The spectroscopic methods discussed are UV-VIS, IR & FTIR, Raman and Auger electron spectroscopes.